Friday, May 22, 2020

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - 552 Words

In 2008, the American economy broke down. Known as the Global Financial Crisis, this is widely considered to be the worst financial crisis since the 1930’s when the stock market crashed and the Great Depression hit. On November 4, 2008, candidate Barack Obama was elected for the first term of his presidency. The following February, The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009—or the ARRA—was signed into effect by congress, and made into law by President Obama on February 17, 2009. This stimulus package was originally proposed to be 816 billion dollars, but was eventually raised to be 840 billion dollars in 2012. The purpose of this bill was to inspire confidence in the American people that the economy would be up and running again. The ARRA was intended to give money back to small businesses as well as the American families who ran and worked at these businesses. This varies from TARP, or the Troubled Asset Recovery Program, which was a bill that was aimed at bailing out banks in October 2008. TARP worked to allow banks in danger to participate in reverse auction, in order to sell their assets. In order to restore hope and eventually safeguard 900,000—2.3 million jobs, the ARRA was intended to be spent over the course of a decade. It was very strategically planned, however, not to be spent evenly during that time. Instead, the following arrangements were made: 185 billion dollars in the fiscal year 2009; 400 billion dollars in the fiscal year 2010; and 135 billionShow MoreRelatedThe American Recovery And Reinvestment Act1532 Words   |  7 Pagescriticized plans in his presidency, it did exactly what it was meant for, which was to fix the economy and create growth. After the crash of the market in 2008, Obama created the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The act was an â€Å"economic stimulus package†(Amadeo). The act would cost $787 billion. The act was meant to help families and small businesses instead of big business so that people in the United States could put trust into the system again which could stimulate spending and growthRead MoreThe American Recovery And Reinvestment Act1606 Words   |  7 PagesPeople believe the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act or ARRA had a centralizing effect, yet there are motives that support, as well as some that oppose the act. The act is sometimes referred to as The Stimulus or The Recovery Act. The United States Congress in February of 2009 passed this Act and it was signed in the same month, by President Barack Obama. The main goal for the Act consisted of maintaining and building jobs right away. The next goal was to offer momentary release plans for thoseRead MoreThe American Recovery And Reinvestment Act784 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act signed into law in 2009, includes the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act known as the HITECH Act. The act defined specific requirements for receiving financial incentives for ‘meaningful use’ of the electronic health record (EHR). Hospitals and providers could begin implementation of the requirements in 2011 to receive the incentives by meeting specific objectives, after 2015 failure to meet meaningful use requirementsRead MoreThe American Recovery And Reinvestment Act Essay799 Words   |  4 PagesOn February 17, 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was instated. This fiscal plan was created to stabilize the economy while it was spiraling down out of control. At the time, the United States was experiencing many economic problems and was very close to a collapse. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was created by Barack Obama to save 900,000 to 2.3 million jobs. The plan ask ed for 800 billion dollars but had to be approved by congress first. This plan tried to end the breakdownRead MoreThe American Recovery And Reinvestment Act1301 Words   |  6 Pagesfor hospitals to institute meaningful use of electronic health records (EHRs) by 2011 (Adler-Milstein, Bates, Jha, 2011) (Murphy, 2010). The Meaningful Use Act is a complicated principle that is part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) as well as the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) act. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the gravity of ARRA, HITECH, and meaningful use. It will attempt to do this by explaining ARRA, HITECHRead MoreThe American Recovery And Reinvestment Act Essay1746 Words   |  7 Pages2009, the president signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act or HITECH Act, which mandated that all healthcare providers must comply and begin to transition to electronic medical records (EMR) and demonstrate â€Å"meaningful use.† This act set up a timeline, which established that practices and hospitals needed to be up and running with EMR in order to continue receiving reimbursements from federal programs like Medicaid and Medicare. In order to understand this act and what it accomplishes, weRead MoreThe American Recovery And Reinvestment Act1596 Words   |  7 PagesOverview of Meaningful Use The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 identified three main components of meaningful use: the use of a certified EHR in a meaningful manner, electronic exchange of health information to improve quality of care, and the use of technology to submit clinical outcomes and quality measures (Heath Resources and Service Administration, n.d.). ARRA includes many measures to modernize our nation’s infrastructure, with the â€Å"Health Information Technology for EconomicRead MoreThe American Recovery And Reinvestment Act1513 Words   |  7 Pages In 2009 The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allocated approximately $19 billion to support physicians and hospitals in attaining meaningful use of health information technology (HIT). The meaningful use program is intended to facilitate providers to amass and save patient data such as allergies, health history, lab results, health center visits in the electronic health record (EHR) and securely communicate these records with other health entities and governmental agencies (OracleRead MoreThe American Recovery And Reinvestment Act1048 Words   |  5 Pagescore criteria, and recommendations for additional criteria. Overview of Meaningful Use In 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) were passed by the Obama legislation to try and improve healthcare for Americans by reducing costs and improving quality. The ARRA is commonly known as the ‘stimulus package’. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) act was part of the ARRA to help improve our country’s infrastructure. HITECH supports electronic healthRead MoreThe American Recovery And Reinvestment Act2542 Words   |  11 PagesExecutive Summary The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act made an investment in the year 2009 to encourage the adoption and implementation of the electronic health records (EHRs)(Cite). EHRs incentive payments were authorized through Medicare and Medicaid to clinicians and hospitals when they privately and securely used EHRs for achieving improvements in care delivery by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH). The healthcare organizations are expected to

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Similarities Between Islam And Christianity - 1421 Words

The world could end in a million different ways; by war, aliens or global warming; it seems every person has a theory as to what will happen. Christians and Muslims both have prediction and prophecy telling what insanity will ensue when the earth ceases to exist. Islam and Christianity have some very similar theories and also some very contrasting theories. â€Å"In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. †¦the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the spirit of God was hovering over the waters.† In the Christian faith the world was created by God in the sequence of seven days. Throughout those days he made light and darkness, water and sky; he made the animals of the water and the animals†¦show more content†¦A big part of the end of the world in the Christian faith is something called the rapture. The rapture is when Jesus returns to take all those who believe in Him up to heaven and away from the earth. Tho se left on the earth are the people that rejected God and/or are part of different religions. When the rapture occurs, the Holy Spirit, God’s believed spirit that resides on the earth, will leave the earth and there will be nothing holding back evil. The time at which the rapture will occur is a subject of conflict among the Christian churches. The first and most popular theory is the â€Å"Pre-Tribulation† theory; the people in this group believe the rapture to occur right before the Tribulation. In this theory the rapture itself is sort of the â€Å"starting pistol† for the Tribulation. Next is the â€Å"Mid-Tribulation† theory, these people believe that Christians will have to suffer three-and-a-half years or halfway through the Tribulation. They believe that Christians are exempt from the wrath of God but are not exempt from the sufferings of the Tribulation. Similar is the â€Å"Post-Tribulation† theory; in this belief Christians are not raptu red until the end of the Tribulation for much the same reasons as the â€Å"Mid-Trib† theory. Some also believe that even though Christians’ sins have been atoned for they still have to be punished with suffering in the Tribulation. The last and least commonly heard of theory is the â€Å"Pre-Wrath† theory. This groupShow MoreRelatedSimilarities Between Christianity And Islam993 Words   |  4 Pages Christianity and Islam are the two biggest religions that are present in the world today, with close to four billion followers combined. While Christianity and Islam actually have a lot more in common than most people think, there are still many differences to them. First, let’s start with the similarities between the two. Both religions believe that in one way or another, Jesus will return to Earth in the final days of the world to have a judgement day, in which essentially will determine if youRead MoreSimilarities Between Christianity And Islam1316 Words   |  6 PagesIn today’s world, the largest religion is Christianity with a 33 percent and Islam coming in second place at around 21 percent. According to the article A Common Word between Us and You Both religions make up around half of the population around the world. Islam and Christianity are collectively known as Abrahamic religions because they trace their history to the covenant God made with Abraham in the Hebrew Bible. Christianity and Islam are two of the fastest growing religions, and they bothRead MoreSimilarities Between Islam And Christianity997 Words   |  4 PagesIslam and Christianity are two largely wide spread religions in the world that have a great impact on their followers, especially in a spiritual manner. Because of originality, values, and unique believes in each religion, their believers respect and try to comprehend each other’s faith. With Christianity’s record 2.2 billion population and Islam’s impressive 1.6 billion pop ulation, they both form the bases of their countries laws and are recognized by governments all around the world. Even thoughRead MoreSimilarities Between Christianity And Islam1427 Words   |  6 PagesChristianity and Islam share much common ground. They trace their origins to Abraham; believe in prophecy, apostles, revelation, scripture, resurrection, and life after death. Christianity and Islam have related theological traditions; believe in one omnipotent God who is concerned with human salvation. Both religions are somewhat similar in how they embrace their beliefs; what the church is to Christianity, the umma is to Islam. Notwithstanding these important similarities, however, these two worldviewsRead MoreSimilarities Between Christianity And Islam1088 Words   |  5 Pagessignificant historic province where it served as the birthplace for many beliefs and religions such as Christianity and Islam. Within 600 CE to 1250 CE and 1st century to 1000 CE, Christianity and Islam be gan to spread. The two leading religions were very apparent in their belief in God and worship. As we seek to understand the Christian and Islam beliefs, it is important to be familiar with both the similarities and differences in the early years. The thought of death may terrify most of us, but to thoseRead MoreSimilarities Between Christianity And Islam1409 Words   |  6 Pages Christianity and Islam were both spread in socially and economically similar and politically different. They both had an important people that role and spread of the religions. Christianity included the individuals of who believe in Jesus Christ. Christians are the flowers of the Christ who often believed is the son of the God (â€Å"the father†); Christians strongly believe that Christ will return after the next life; the end of the world. Islam consists of individuals who believe in Allah, the godRead MoreSimilarities Between Christianity And Islam1005 Words   |  5 Pages Compare and contrast ancient Christianity and Islam. Christianity and Islam are both closely related religions, because they are branched of Abraham and other patriarchs mentioned in Hebrew Scriptures. Examples of these books are the Old/ New testament and the Quran. These books serve as their spiritual ancestors and are also know as Abrahamic religions. Although these books have a massive amount in common the clash of these two religions has caused for a mass crimes and violence across humanityRead MoreSimilarities Between Christianity And Islam891 Words   |  4 PagesChristianity came about 2000 years ago and was founded by Jesus Christ. It is mostly practiced in the Western world with a population of about 2 billion people. The name Christianity came from a Greek word ‘Christos’ meaning Jesus Christ and was founded between 4 B.C. and 30 A.D, and consist of the 3 major groups which are the Roman Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox. Islam on the other hand was founded about 1400 years ago by Muhammad in 600’s A.D. The word Islam is derived from an Arabic word forRead MoreSimilarities Between Christianity And Islam1332 Words   |  6 Pagesreligion has its own goal, and their own path and belief to reach their goals. However, there are many similarities in beliefs. Although the followers of Judaism, Christianit y, and Islam may see things differently, they all fundamentally hold the same values and codes. To Islam, the Prophet Mohammad’s teaching is a complete and final revelation. On the other hand, according to the bible, Christianity believes that Jesus Christ is the true lord and savior that will grant you the access to heaven in theRead MoreSimilarities Between Islam And Christianity1928 Words   |  8 Pagesget punished for practicing religion. The two religions bear some superficial similarities, the differences between the two religions is clear though. How the two religions practice their beliefs, the population, beliefs, and how they view â€Å"Jesus† are different and similar. Although the two religions are very different from each other, they also show some similarities. The main similarity is that Islam and Christianity both are monotheistic; meaning they believe in one god. Which are 2 out of the

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Walker IIi V. Texas Division, Sons Of Confederate Veterans...

In Walker III v. Texas Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans (2015), attorney Scott Keller argues on behalf of the petitioner—Walker III (Walker)—and attorney Roger George represents the respondent—Texas Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV). The case concerns the constitutionality of a decision made by the Texas Department of Motor Vehicles Board (the DMV Board) to reject the specialty license plate designs submitted by SCV and its members, and addresses possible violations of the First and Fourteenth Amendment. Four contentions surround the issue: the form of speech embodied by the specialty license plate program; State control over the content of specialty license plates; specialty license plates as a limited public forum; and, ultimately, the potential violation of the First Amendment’s Free Speech Clause and the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of â€Å"viewpoint neutrality.† Justice Breyer delivers the opinion of the Court, affi rming the plates as government speech. However, Justice Alito, joined by the Chief Justice, Justice Scalia, and Justice Kennedy, Justice Alito dissents, concerned with. the Court’s broad interpretation of government speech. Speaking for the petitioner, Scott Keller cites Summum as precedent and asserts that messages displayed on Texas license plates are, in fact, government speech. Dismissing the claim that specialty plates represent government speech, Roger George, for the respondent, contends the State created a billboard opportunity forShow MoreRelatedThe Confederate Flag : Controversy Or Logical Solution?1717 Words   |  7 PagesThe Confederate Flag: Controversy or Logical Solution? The Confederate flag has been a topic of controversy in the United States for many years. It and other symbols of the Confederacy are parts of many state flags in the South and it is even flown at several state buildings throughout the South. To some the Confederate flag is a historical symbol and is believed to be a way of remembering the Civil War that almost tore the nation in two, but to others it represents fear and hatred due to its useRead MoreTheu.s. V. Texas Division, Sons Of Confederate Veterans, Inc.2555 Words   |  11 PagesUnited States Supreme Court John Walker, III, in His Official Capacity as Chairman of the Board, et al., Petitioners v. Texas Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans, Inc., et al. Appealed from the United States Court of Appeals 5th Circuit Statement of the Case This case seeks to protect the right to â€Å"free speech,† as is granted to through the 1st amendment, and affirmed by the (insert court here), in regards to specialty or vanity license plates. The 1st amendment reads as follows: Congress shallRead MoreTexas Division, Sons Of Confederate Veterans897 Words   |  4 PagesIn Walker III v. Texas Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans (2015), the Supreme Court concerns itself with the constitutionality of a decision by the Texas Department of Motor Vehicles Board (the DMV Board) to reject the specialty license plate designs submitted by SCV and its members, and the Court addresses possible violations of the First and Fourteenth Amendment. Attorney Scott Keller appears for Walker, the petitioner, and attorney Roger George represents the Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV)Read MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesApplications 239 3 The Group 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Foundations of Group Behavior 271 Understanding Work Teams 307 Communication 335 Leadership 367 Power and Politics 411 Conflict and Negotiation 445 Foundations of Organization Structure 479 v vi BRIEF CONTENTS 4 The Organization System 16 Organizational Culture 511 17 Human Resource Policies and Practices 543 18 Organizational Change and Stress Management 577 Appendix A Research in Organizational Behavior ComprehensiveRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesOthers 323 Managing Conflict 373 PART III GROUP SKILLS 438 8 Empowering and Delegating 439 9 Building Effective Teams and Teamwork 489 10 Leading Positive Change 533 PART IV SPECIFIC COMMUNICATION SKILLS 590 591 Supplement A Making Oral and Written Presentations Supplement B Conducting Interviews 619 Supplement C Conducting Meetings 651 Appendix I Glossary 673 Appendix II References 683 Name Index 705 Subject Index 709 Combined Index 713 iii This page intentionally left blank

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Refusal of Conformity in The Adventures of Huckleberry...

In the appropriately titled novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by author, Mark Twain, a young boy, named, Huckleberry Finns life is completely changed. The story is basically that, Huck is sent to live with his strict relatives that try to conform him into someone he isnt, but, sequentially ends up traveling down the Mississippi River, with an escaped slave, Jim. As the novel progresses, Jim and Huck develop an extremely close friendship, which makes him change his views on slavery. Despite numerous chances, Huck never turns Jim in, because of his new outlook on slavery. Although slavery is a main theme in the book, it is not the only one. Because, author, Mark Twain creates a social critique by juxtaposing the†¦show more content†¦He also sees how hypocritical they truly are, and, it can be inferred that, Twain wanted them to represent society in the novel. Huck thinks their way of living was ineffective, and that is why he used to sneak out in the middle if the nig ht, skip school, and smoke his pipe. It was difficult for Huck to adjust from an unstructured home, with no training, raised by an alcoholic and abusive father, to two strict, cookie-cutter women in a house with plenty of rules and regulations. After earning a large amount of money as a reward, with his best friend, Tom Sawyer, Hucks abusive alcoholic father, who he calls Pap, comes back to steal his money by kidnapping him, and while Huck is with his father he says, I didnt see how I ever got to like it so well at the Widows, where you had to wash, and eat in a plate, and comb up, and go to bed and get up regular, and be forever bothering over a book and have old Miss Watson peeking at you all the time (Twain p. 37). Hucks view on society is one of dissatisfaction and rebellion, as his opinions reveal how imperfect, and unjust societys rules actually are. Especially after hearing that his behavior will determine whether or not he will go to Heaven or Hell scares him a little bit, b ecause he wasn’t taught right from wrong his entire life up until this point. After this Hucks thoughts are, how can a man not be punished by law (his father), for abusing him, but Huck can be reprimanded for harmless things likeShow MoreRelatedAn Analysis of the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn as a Picaresque Tale2155 Words   |  9 PagesAn Analysis of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn as a Picaresque Tale A picaresque novel is based on a story that is typically satirical and illustrates with realistic and witty detail the adventures of a roguish hero of lower social standing who lives by their common sense in a corrupt society. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain, is an eminent example of picaresque literature. There are many aspects of the novel that portray picaresque through the history and personality of the mainRead MoreHow to Read Lit Like a Prof Notes3608 Words   |  15 PagesLiteral Vampirism: Nasty old man, attractive but evil, violates a young woman, leaves his mark, takes her innocence b. Sexual implications—a trait of 19th century literature to address sex indirectly c. Symbolic Vampirism: selfishness, exploitation, refusal to respect the autonomy of other people, using people to get what we want, placing our desires, particularly ugly ones, above the needs of another. 4. If It’s Square, It’s a Sonnet 5. Now, Where Have I Seen Her Before? a. There is no such thing asRead MoreEssay on 103 American Literature Final Exam5447 Words   |  22 Pagesmovement of large numbers of Native Americans off tribal reservations and into urban and suburban areas 17. Which of the following best describes the concept of â€Å"self-reflexivity† in a literary work? (A) consistent use of first-person narration (B) a refusal to deviate from established literary traditions (C) a belief in the ability of literature to convey reality through lengthy description and generalization (D) a concern with its own nature as art and with questioning previous literary traditions 18

Annotation of the Children of Hurin Free Essays

The purpose of this essay is to be a book review, and an analysis of the writing as a whole. It has been said that this is Tolkien’s darkest work, which goes along with the theme of Darkness and Wickedness throughout the book. Tolkien’s time period, religion, and upbringing have shaped his works; including this one. We will write a custom essay sample on Annotation of the Children of Hurin or any similar topic only for you Order Now Quote â€Å"he can make one feel the darkness and wickedness, and its insidious nature as it silently seeps into human hearts and minds, which alters their behavior leading to human demise. This is very true in The Children of Hurin; there are characters that because of their wickedness that is inside, or cast upon them end up perishing due to their choices and behaviors. I do not necessarily agree with Witherington that human pride goes before the fall, and it makes us vulnerable to powers of darkness. I do not understand the connection of how pride can cause vulnerability to the darkness. If someone is prideful then they may not take heed to others advice and counsel, but that doesn’t necessarily mean that it will cause them to fall into darkness easier than someone who isn’t. The protagonist Turin sets out on his journey in a world that is occupied with evil and wickedness. So far Turin hasn’t fallen into obscurity and evil ways and he has a lot of pride in this story. What is personally interesting to me in this essay is Witherington’s correlation of â€Å"Tolkien’s use of the motif of the creeping darkness of evil which falls upon the realm owes more to the Biblical notion of the effects of the Fall than to Norse lore. † How to cite Annotation of the Children of Hurin, Papers

Describing An Accounting Issue Business †Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Describing an Accounting Issue Business? Answer: Introducation This article from the Harvard Business Review dated 1st May 2017 could be linked to the topics of accounting regulation and measurement (Managing for the Long Term 2017). This title of the article is Managing for the Long-term. In this article, the main focus is to examine on attributes on how to maximize shareholder value and how it can threaten companys health as well as financial performance. The model flaws-as mentioned in the accounting news (Agency Theory) One of the theories named as agency theory works against the corporate law where the shareholders do not have the rights of possessor of the business as well as executive are not shareholders representative (Samkin et al., 2016). It is where researcher and observer noted where the thought includes shareholders owns the corporation is at best confusing and at worst incorrect. Furthermore, it is from legal viewpoint where shareholders are recipient of the behavior of the Business Corporation but are not dominion over the piece of property. It is mentioned in the lBusiness firm (Lodhia Hess, 2014).egal structure; both administrator and manager are fiduciaries somewhat than representative and not just for shareholders but also for the In this, manager are grateful for carrying out the wishes of the principal whereas the obligations of the fiduciaries for exercising independent judgment on behalf of the beneficiary. In that case, agent is an order taker where the fiduciary that expects at the time of making discretionary decisions. Furthermore, directors have the fiduciary duty that act in the best interests of the Business Corporation that is different from simply performing the bidding of the shareholders. Therefore, the heath of the financial structure widely depends upon the getting the responsibility of the rights of the shareholders (Lavia Lpez Hiebl, 2014). The next flaw is out of step with normal practice where the shareholders are not the possessor of the business in any established sense of the term for exercising care in managing the operations. For example, the beneficiaries to the company hold the share of the financial institutions. Addition to that, it is the professionals who actually manage with the investments that are typically judged as well as reward on each quarter basis of returns from the total investment attributes. Therefore, an outcome is high turnover in shares that consequences from high-frequency operate that is done by the speculators (Lall, 2015). Most of accountants especially the partners complaints about wasting time in meetings. The reason behind the above problem is that accounting firms are poorly managed (Kordecki Bullen, 2014). In order to improve the meetings, it is needed to improve over the performance of the accounting firm as it will help in solving problem rather than just recognized and conversed in theoretical terms. Open conversation is healthy where declaration is what distinguishes the major player. Accountability is a process that starts with addressing the issues and measures through which it gets resolved. Here, non-accountable partners need to avoid any of the detailed measurements, demand equality, and ridicule superiority (Jorissen et al., 2014). As far as accounting partners are concerned, they will be strengthening the standards as well as welcoming the measurement by taking initiatives and deepening the commitments as far as possible. Inclusion of item of accounting news This news explains that after there was fall during the year 2014, the hedge fund activities increases frustration with the Board of Directors. In this, it was noted that the result took the directors to task for the failure where they paid more than $400,000 per year on behalf of the business holder (IFRS - Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft and Comment letters 2017). Compensation is big part that is a main topic of concern on the Board. Often, people speak about pay for performance but in reality the Board needs to expand a balanced scorecard for evaluate the level of presentation where it helps in determining the compensation. In order to assess the performance, the scorecard will covers the major array of issue in terms of short-term and long-term that is other hedge against short-termism. One question arises whether short-termism destroy value. It is one of the topics that are debated by the leaders in business, academia as well as government (Holder et al., 2013). Linkage of major issues in article In this particular article, there was clear mention regarding the accounting regulations such as agency theory that is a concept of management responsibility that are widely accepted. In the year 1997, Business Roundtable issue mentioned in the statement that declares the fact where the paramount duty of management as well as Board of Directors for the corporate stockholders. The principal objective or purpose of business organization is to create financial returns to the owners where it issued in reaction to pressurize especially from the institutional investors. The declaration in result revises the earlier position where the investor needs to obtain a good return but the lawful concern of further community that requires proper attention (Exposure Drafts Public Comment Documents. 2017). Practical suggestion of the business centered domination considers as far reaching where the Boardrooms need to adopt the approach that expect some of the features such as: It receives greater likelihood that staggers Board for facilitating continuity as well as transfer of institutional knowledge (Exposure Draft and Comment letters 2017). It requires more Board-level concentration for sequence planning as well as management expansion It brings close link between executive compensation as well as attaining strategic goals of the company It requires more concentration to risk analysis as well as political and ecological indecision (Exposure Documents Open for Comment. 2017) It means strategic financial approach requires allocation of resources It need to strongly focus on investments especially in new potential as well as innovation It requires more conventional use of influence through market volatility It need to concern with the corporate citizenship as well as ethical that goes beyond legal compliance It is all about attributing ownership of the corporation to the sound shareholders where it takes into consideration challenging problem of accountability. It is necessary to understand the fact that shareholders have no lawful duty that can defend or in that case provide companies whose shares are owned and protected by the doctrine of imperfect accountability especially from the legal responsibility of the debts as well as misdeeds of the company. Furthermore, they need to buy and sell shares without any limit as well as requisite to reveal the individuality in case of specific situations. Addition to that, it needs to be physically distant from the others where the company invests in for a specified time period. Public company shareholders mostly have few incentives that they will consider as well as views accountable for the possessions of the proceedings that favor the business and further parties as well (Ehoff Jr Gray, 2014). In case of agency theory, it need to yet grapple w ith the certain inference of accountability those consequences from patient the essential as well as premises where the shareholders actually own the Business Corporation (Deegan, 2014) It is the effects of the omission that actually troubles and directly connected to the agency-based model of governance as well as management that weakens the company in accordance to the predictions done by expert and could damage the entire economy as a whole. It is concerned with the effects of corporate strategy as well as resource allocation that need proper attention in the recent times. From the past decades, the organization models has majorly rendered the foundation for the various changes that includes in the governance as well as administration perform that has been taken simultaneously for increasing the authority and manipulate of different types of shareholders for the elevated claims by the shareholders. In the given constituencies, it helps in establishing any other type of corporate responsibility as well as accountability on behalf of the shareholders that exercises that power. In that case, managers were found under increasing pressure on how to deliver it faster w ith the given predictable returns as well as curtailing the riskier investments that aims at meeting the future needs. It also deals with meeting or finding out the best creative solutions to the problems that are faced by the people in and across the world (Deegan, 2013). Introducing the major issues in the new standard On 20th of June 2013, the IASB (International Accounting Standard Board) had published for public comment that is a revised exposure draft of proposals that is used for secretarial of Insurance contracts. Addition to that, the Exposure Draft help in building upon proposals that was published in the year 2010 and reflects upon feedback that is received at the time of wide-ranging public discussion period as pursued in the new publication of proposals (Compilation and Review Standards - AICPA. 2017). The new or revised proposals mainly aim at offering a reliable basis for secretarial especially for insurance contracts so that it is easier for the users of monetary declaration for understanding how insurance contracts influence the financial performance, cash flows and financial position of a business entity. In this, the model mainly presents the 2010 Exposure Draft that supports some of the specific issues that was raised when IASB address it in given format. Nevertheless, the revised proposals had responded to the specific issues through introducing enhancements for presenting as well as measuring the insurance contracts at the time of minimizing the artificial accounting volatility at the same time (Comiran Graham, 2016). Explain if there is usually a agreement or if there is disagreement between the commenting parties There is consensus between the commenting parties that need to be resolved in the new proposed accounting standard. IASB had published for public comment that is an Exposure Draft that actually proposes a new or revised conceptual framework for the financial reporting. Addition to that, the new proposals aims at improving over the financial reporting as it offers complete, clearer as well as reorganized set of perception that can be easily used by the IASB. It is used by them for developing the IFRS as well as others so that the users understand the application of the given standard (Christ Burritt, 2015). The Exposure Draft is more complete as compared to existing conceptual framework as it helps in addressing the areas that are not previously covered and important. The areas relates to measurement, financial performance, derecognition, the reporting entity as well as presentation and disclosure. The new Exposure Draft can easily replace the existing conceptual framework as it clearly clarifies with the information so that it can meet the objective of financial reporting that takes into account information that are used for assessing the management stewardship of the resources of Business Entity (Anderson et al., 2016). In addition, the new Exposure Draft clearly explains the roles of prudence as well as substances that are present in the financial reporting in the most appropriate way. It also clarifies with the fact that high level of measurement leads to uncertainty of actions that makes the financial information a less relevant than other. Furthermore, the Exposure Draft clearly mentions regarding significant decision-making proves such as recognition as well as measurement that drive through considering the nature of resulting information. It takes into account both financial performances as well as financial position in an overall manner (Exposure Drafts Public Comment Documents. 2017). Therefore, the new Exposure Draft will provide clearer definitions of given assets as well as liabilities that need extensive guidance for supporting the definitions. The new Exposure Draft informs the parts of the presented theoretical structure that are outdated at present. For instance, the Exposure Draft mainly highlights the role of likelihood from the given definition of assets as well as liabilities (Anantharaman, 2015). Analyzing the statement behind public interest, economic interest group and capture theories and evaluating which one best explains each of the comment letters Public Interest theory is one of the theories that clearly assumes the fact that economic markets are fragile in nature as well as has a tendency to operate inefficiently in favor of any particular individual concern (IFRS - Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft and Comment letters 2017). It completely ignores the significance of the society as a whole. Addition to that, in order to direct as well as monitor, it is needed to have government intervention for the economic markets. It is a known fact that government regulates the banks where it works according to the social interest. It is the bank that has the ability to serve the social interest with efficient allocation of resources in proper ways (Allen Ramanna, 2013). The capture theory, on the other hand, aims at recognizing close association between the government agencies as well as industries where they actually operates or functions. As far as regulating agencies is concerned, they are created by the government at various levels, be it state, central and local levels. This will ensure protection of the overall interests of the society for taking part in industrial decisions as well as activities at the same time. For instance, in case of government agency, they are established at state level so that they can regulate the industry as well as protect the rights of the society from the adverse impact of any sort (Accounting Standards UpdatesEffective Dates. 2017). Economic interest theory aims at assuming the fact where the industry forms the groups that serves the best interests of the group. Addition to that, there are various groups that faces conflicts prevails in a given situation. These crowd lobby administration to make the legislation based on the interest of the group (Exposure Drafts Public Comment Documents. 2017). Furthermore, the financial groups do not have communal attention in their schedule. On the contrary, controller is also provoked by self interest; they are not troubled with community interest. Nevertheless, Regulators plan is to uphold their current position and also get re-elected. Hence they have to please these economic groups for the reason that they are the populace who manage the financial system. The monetary groups will have strong power and those groups who do not have the authority will not be able to lobby management. From an economic interest group theory viewpoint of guideline any possible legislation to be initiates may not lead to responsibility of business in relative to their communal and environmental presentation since legislations will be put in place keeping financial groups interest in apprehension for the reason that of lobbying with the administration (IFRS - Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft and Comment letters 2017). The best theory that is explained in the comment letters is the capture theory. The authoritarian agencies need a knowledge and proper information of the business which is being synchronized. Example, directive of the insurance industry need the proficiency of working along with the banking industry and group that works on behalf of schooling industry that has the capability in how this business works. Furthermore, the society who have most information about an exacting business, they fit in to that business either they previously worked there or would be departing in prospect or will answer with the industry information (IFRS - Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft and Comment letters 2017). From the website of FASB, it mainly states that FASB mean to spread principles only when the predictable payback surpass the apparent costs, when it is dependable, quantitative cost-benefit computation as and when required. It is known fact that cost benefit analysis is practical to authoritarian improvement when the net economic value of a new instruction. Therefore, it mainly measures the costs as well as benefits of the guideline into financial terms (Exposure Drafts Public Comment Documents. 2017). There are several agencies or groups that are normally created by given public and ultimately they create working in support of the business they fit in. If the controller or group associate are extremely emotionally concerned with the business in which they are working that means the organization is detained by the business and no more they look for the benefits of the society as whole (Exposure Drafts Public Comment Documents. 2017). The authoritarian agencies are recognized for defensive interest of the culture by increasing the allocation of resources but if the agencies are captured by the business they start working for the industrys interest. Furthermore, when government agencies are shaped to control the oligopoly industries where accounting firms work with matching products, then if these agencies are captured by the business, they are malformed into monopoly. Therefore, these agency work as effectual head of the trade and get very high authority and regard in the business (IFRS - Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft and Comment letters 2017). Reference List Accounting Standards UpdatesEffective Dates. (2017).Fasb.org. Retrieved 12 May 2017, from https://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/SectionPagecid=1218220137102 Allen, A., Ramanna, K. (2013). Towards an understanding of the role of standard setters in standard setting.Journal of Accounting and Economics,55(1), 66-90. Anantharaman, D. (2015). Understanding the evolution of SFAS 141 and 142: An analysis of comment letters.Research in Accounting Regulation,27(2), 99-110. Anderson, U. L., Doxey, M. M., Geiger, M. A., Gist, W. E., Janvrin, D. J., Polinski, P. W. (2016). Comments by the Auditing Standards Committee of the Auditing Section of the American Accounting Association on FASB Exposure Draft of Proposed Accounting Standard Update: Notes to Financial Statements (Topic 235): Assessing Whether Disclosures Are Material: Participating Committee Members.Current Issues in Auditing,10(2), C1-C9. Christ, K. L., Burritt, R. L. (2015). Material flow cost accounting: a review and agenda for future research.Journal of Cleaner Production,108, 1378-1389. Comiran, F., Graham, C. M. (2016). Comment letter activity: A response to proposed changes in lease accounting.Research in Accounting Regulation,28(2), 109-117. Compilation and Review Standards - AICPA. (2017).Aicpa.org. Retrieved 12 May 2017, from https://www.aicpa.org/RESEARCH/STANDARDS/COMPILATIONREVIEW/Pages/default.aspx Deegan, C. (2013). Financialaccounting theory. McGraw-Hill Education Australia. Deegan, C. (2014). Financial accounting theory (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill: Sydney Ehoff Jr, C., Gray, D. (2014). Going Concern: Where Is It Going?.Journal of Business Economics Research (Online),12(2), 121. Exposure Documents Open for Comment. (2017).Fasb.org. Retrieved 12 May 2017, from https://www.fasb.org/draft/ Exposure Draft and Comment letters. (2017).Ifrs.org. Retrieved 12 May 2017, from https://www.ifrs.org/Current-Projects/IASB-Projects/Insurance-Contracts/Exposure-Draft-June-2013/Pages/Exposure-Draft-and-comment-letters.aspx Exposure Drafts Public Comment Documents. (2017).Fasb.org. Retrieved 12 May 2017, from https://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/SectionPagecid=1176157086783 Holder, A. D., Karim, K. E., Lin, K. J., Woods, M. (2013). A content analysis of the comment letters to the FASB and IASB: Accounting for contingencies.Advances in Accounting,29(1), 134-153. IFRS - Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft and Comment letters. (2017).Ifrs.org. Retrieved 12 May 2017, from https://www.ifrs.org/Current-Projects/IASB-Projects/Conceptual-Framework/Pages/Conceptual-Framework-Exposure-Draft-and-Comment-letters.aspx Jorissen, A., Lybaert, N., Orens, R., van der Tas, L. (2014). Constituents Participation in the IASC/IASBs due Process of International Accounting Standard Setting: A Longitudinal Analysis. InAccounting and Regulation(pp. 79-110). Springer New York. Kordecki, G. S., Bullen, M. L. (2014). Evolutionary developments in accounting standard setting for private entities and SMEs.Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies,8, 1. Lall, R. (2015). Timing as a source of regulatory influence: a technical elite network analysis of global finance.Regulation Governance,9(2), 125-143. Lavia Lpez, O., Hiebl, M. R. (2014). Management accounting in small and medium-sized enterprises: current knowledge and avenues for further research.Journal of Management Accounting Research,27(1), 81-119. Lodhia, S., Hess, N. (2014). Sustainability accounting and reporting in the mining industry: current literature and directions for future research.Journal of Cleaner Production,84, 43-50. Managing for the Long Term. (2017).Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 12 May 2017, from https://hbr.org/2017/05/managing-for-the-long-term Samkin, G., Samkin, G., Stainbank, L., Stainbank, L. (2016). Teaching and learning: Current and future challenges facing accounting academics, academics, and the development of an agenda for future research.Meditari Accountancy Research,24(3), 294-317.

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Target Market and Positioning Strategy Identification Tracking down the Flaws of Existing Policy

Introduction. Facing the End of an Era: Pfizer, Inc Moving in the fast lane with the currently developing world is quite an uneasy, though doubtlessly rewarding task. Because of the changes which the economical society and the world market are undergoing, companies are forced to change their strategies to adapt to the new conditions, as well as withstand the increasing competition.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Target Market and Positioning Strategy Identification: Tracking down the Flaws of Existing Policy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the most graphic examples of the given phenomenon, Pfizer Inc., was forced to change its marketing strategy to adapt to the current standards of marketing. However, according to the case study, despite the changes, the company is still in a losing position. Unless new ways of development are suggested, the company is bound to face certain difficulties; however, re considering the current marketing strategy, one can possibly suggest new means of boosting the company’s success. A Description of the Target Market: When the Supply Meets the Demand To assess the efficiency of the changes which Pfizer Inc. has decided to apply to increase their revenues, the target market which the company aims at winning must be considered. Once the target audience is defined, it is considerably easier to analyze their demands and come up with peculiar propositions. It is obvious that the company aims at delivering products for the people of middle and high class, offering the medicine which is rather expensive, yet innovative and efficient: according to the case study, the key goal of the company is â€Å"to persuade medical professionals the world over to make Pfizer drugs the treatment of choice for their patients’ aches and pains† (Case 2–1. Pfizer, Inc., n.d., 156). Thus, it is clear that the company’s target market is the p eople who suffer from the diseases which require rare and expensive medicine. However, according to the report, the company has decided to change the given niche – rather unwillingly, though – to another one. â€Å"Normally a new entry creates new interest in the market. That doesn’t seem to be happening here† (Case 2–1. Pfizer, Inc., n.d., 157), McKinnel says. However, the company y seems to keep to their blockbuster strategy, which means that the current trend to offer medicine for â€Å"the diseases that remain without satisfactory treatments† (Case 2–1. Pfizer, Inc., n.d., 157) seems to be the current niche.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Analyzing the above-mentioned, one has to say that the key problem of the company is that they are hesitant about their further course. Although the old strategy has been used to de ath, Pfizer Inc. still cannot change its course because of the success of the previous strategy. Therefore, the company needs to aim at wider target audience and offer not only the medicine for a very specific group, e.g., Viagra, but also the medicine which can be used by people of both sexes and embrace the age group ranging from, say, 10 to 70. Discussing the Positioning Strategy: Pfizer, Inc. and the Current Solutions It goes without saying that positioning of the produced goods is as important as meeting the customers’ demand, mostly because a good positioning strategy not only helps people find the products which they are looking for, but also to drive their attention to the innovations in the given sphere. Regarding the current positioning strategy which the company follows, one must mention that Pfizer Inc. It seems that the company needs to pick a more subtle positioning technique, since â€Å"Overly aggressive marketing also has made drug companies easier targets p olitically† (Case 2–1. Pfizer, Inc., n.d., 161). Hence, a more subtle and less loud publicity should be adopted. For instance, the company can develop an advertising campaign with a show-do-not-tell principle, since the last attempt of the kind was quite successful: â€Å"The company invested nearly $20 million in a program in Florida that was intended to show that better utilization of drugs would actually save the state money. It did† (Case 2–1. Pfizer, Inc., n.d., 161). The Changes to Targeting and Positioning: Reasonable Suggestions As it has been mentioned before, the current positioning strategy which Pfizer Inc. follows leaves much to be desired. However, it is also necessary to keep in mind that the company y has sufficient reasons not to change the existing strategy. As the report says, the company is currently focuses on the development of â€Å"another HDL -raising drug† (Case 2–1. Pfizer, Inc., n.d., 159). Therefore, the company h as changed its target clientele, since the HDL deficiency can occur at literally any age. However, the company still focuses on developing a certain â€Å"blockbuster† medicine.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Target Market and Positioning Strategy Identification: Tracking down the Flaws of Existing Policy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, it is necessary to develop the strategy which will keep the basic premises of the current one, yet be targeted to more general public and offer the medicine for the diseases which a lot of people suffer from. As one can see from the facts provided above, the company has met the first condition, broadening the target group, yet still offers the â€Å"panacea† for a â€Å"topical† disease. What Needs to Be Done: Watching the Competitors, Planning the Moves With the help of the above-mentioned plan, Pfizer Inc. is most likely to withstand the rapid changes and even succeed in attracting even more clients. However, it is also worth keeping in mind that other fields apart from marketing should be taken care of. One of such fields, the aspect of the company’s competitiveness, should be considered as soon as possible, given that Pfizer Inc. is going to enter the global market and, therefore, face a number of rivals. According to what Hooley, Piercy Nicoulaud (2008) claim, it is also crucial to assess the strategies and objectives of the competitors, taking into account their strong and weak points to fill in the niche which they have not noticed yet or cannot fill themselves in. However, the analysis of the existing competitors might take considerable time, since it consists of several stages: Competitor analysis, therefore, involves evaluating a series of concentric circles of adversaries: innermost and the direct competitors within the strategic group, next come companies within the industry that are driven to overcome the entry barriers to the strategic group, and then the outermost potential entrants and substitutes. (Hooley, Piercy Nicoulaud, 2008, 119) Therefore, the numerous rivals of Pfizer Inc. must be taken into account. Once Pfizer Inc. Learns its key adversaries, the company will be able to assess its potential more objectively. Moreover, a certain niche for the company will be found faster. Taking into account the above-mentioned, it is most reasonable to suggest that the company should analyze the score and the achievements of the competitors, as well as check whether it is possible to attract their clientele to Pfizer Inc.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion: Further Recommendations and the Future Prospects. Pfizer Will Live Thus, it is obvious that, despite the complexities which Pfizer is currently handling with, the company has an alternative way of development, which not only incorporates the elements of the preset-day strategy, but also suggests the solutions to the current problems. However, it must be admitted that the suggested plan requires certain compromises and changes in the course which the company is currently taking, which means that considerable losses are going to be taken in the process. Reference List Case 2–1. Pfizer, Inc. (n.d.). Retrieved from ProtectedPDF database. Hooley, G., Piercy, N. F., Nicoulau, B. (2008). Marketing strategy and competitive positioning (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. This case study on Target Market and Positioning Strategy Identification: Tracking down the Flaws of Existing Policy was written and submitted by user Edith Martin to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.